of Zouk Mikael rose in 1305 AD, during the Mameluke and Crusader eras, as
Zouk was the center of Keserwan's coastal guard against the Crusader's attacks.
It was also known as one of the rebellious villages that resisted tyranny
and Mameluke occupation.
When several attempts to occupy Keserwan occurred, its citizens - mostly Maronites
- stood together in order to preserve their independence from the Mameluke
In 1304, after a 3-year siege, the governor of Damascus succeeded in conquering
Keserwan from the north, where he destroyed churches and burned down villages,
including Zouk. The establishment of Souks reflected negatively on the Maronites'
political, military, and economic force, as Zouk suffered from a great deal
of theft and murder.
With the Ottoman occupation in 1541, Zouk was established as the first main
headquarters of the State of Damascus, received several families, and witnessed
important demographic and political changes. When the Turks left the village,
the Al-Khazen family bought all their properties.
century: Under Al Khazen feudalism, the citizens of Zouk proved to be ardent
defenders of social equality. 1831 : Zouk Mikael avoided defeat during the
: Suffering from Egyptian occupation, Zouk played a major role fighting
against the Egyptian Pasha's monopoly of the silk trade.
: Rebellious representatives of the Druze, Maronite and Catholic constituencies
gathered in a Druze hermitage and decided to resist the occupation. Zouk
citizens participated more freely in the attempt to overthrow the rule of
: Qaïmmakamiyataïn regime. Zouk citizens joined the fighters of Becharreh
and Keserwan mountain villages and fought against tyranny.
: Zouk was the center of the peasants' revolt led by Elias Mounayar to fight
against Al Khazen feudalism. 1860 : End of the peasants' revolt and beginning
of troubles between Druzes and Maronites. 1861 : Growth of Zouk citizens'
emigration; a great loss for the village.
: Amendment of the Moutasarrifiyah regime, supervised by an international
committee: the 1864 Protocol.
Zouk was the seat of the Caza of Keserwan; a flourishing era of trade, in
which Zouk Mikael experienced a period of great stability.
: Election of the 1st Municipal council in Zouk Mikael. The citizens saw
in it a major step towards their administrative independence and autonomy.
: World War I. Zouk Mikael and other Lebanese cities and villages suffered
from famine. Zouk citizens were concerned in ensuring wheat flour to feed
the hungry people. Traders, on their part, took advantage of the war and
increased the price of wheat. The Municipal council interfered and controlled
the market and set the price of food substances.
: Fear predominated during World War II. The French army's occupation of
Zouk led to general discontent among the city's inhabitants. During that
war, Zouk Mikael hosted families, and especially those of Polish origin,
who escaped the atrocities of the war in Beirut.